Load Balancing Servers, Firewalls, and Caches. Chandra Kopparapu. Wiley Computer Publishing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publisher: Robert Ipsen. Editor: Carol. consumption on the cache semers and hi& directory update tdfic on the nenvork. For esmple, if we EC-Cache: Load-balanced, Low-latency Cluster Caching. [READ ONLINE] Load Balancing Servers, Firewalls and Caches by Chandra Kopparapu. Book file. PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can.
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Where a surrogate is used the client communicates as if with an origin server. The surrogate fulfills the request from its internal cache, or acts as a gateway or tunnel to the origin server.
Protocols used in these relationships can be found in Section 7. It may also choose not to redirect the traffic, in which case the relationship is between client and replica origin server, see Section 3. In this latter case, communication protocols enable the intercepting network element to stop and start redirecting traffic when the interception proxy becomes un available. Details of these protocols can be found in Section 8. Replica Selection This section describes the schemes and protocols used in the cooperation and communication between client and replica origin web servers.
The ideal situation is to discover an optimal replica origin server for clients to communicate with. Optimality is a policy based decision, often based upon proximity, but may be based on other criteria such as load.
Description: The simplest of client to replica communication mechanisms. This utilizes hyperlink URIs embedded in web pages that point to the individual replica origin servers. The content consumer manually selects the link of the replica origin server they wish to use. Deployment: Probably the most commonly deployed client to replica communication mechanism. Ubiquitous interoperability with humans. Submitter: Document editors. Description: A simple and commonly used mechanism to connect clients with replica origin servers is to use HTTP redirection.
Clients are redirected to an optimal replica origin server via the use of the HTTP [ 1 ] protocol response codes, e. A client establishes HTTP communication with one of the replica origin servers. The initially contacted replica origin server can then either choose to accept the service or redirect the client again. Refer to section Deployment: Observed at a number of large web sites. Extent of usage in the Internet is unknown. This is accomplished by DNS Cooper, et al.
When a client resolves the name of an origin server, the enhanced DNS server sorts the available IP addresses of the replica origin servers starting with the most optimal replica and ending with the least optimal replica.
Security: Relies entirely upon DNS security, and other protocols that may be used in determining the sort order. Deployment: Observed at a number of large web sites and large ISP web hosted services. Extent of usage in the Internet is unknown, but is believed to be increasing.
Inter-Replica Communication This section describes the cooperation and communication between master- and replica- origin servers.
Used in replicating data sets between origin servers. Description: The replica origin server to be updated initiates communication with a master origin server. The communication is established at intervals based upon queued transactions which are scheduled for deferred processing. The scheduling mechanism policies vary, but generally are re-occurring at a specified time. Once communication is established, data sets are copied to the initiating replica origin server. Security: Relies upon the protocol being used to transfer the data set.
Deployment: Very common for synchronization of mirror sites in the Internet. Description: Replica origin servers acquire content as needed due to client demand. Security: Relies upon the protocol being used to transfer the resources. Deployment: Observed at several large web sites. Description: Replicated origin servers cooperate using synchronized strategies and specialized replica protocols to keep the replica data sets coherent. Synchronization strategies range from tightly coherent a few minutes to loosely coherent a few or more hours.
Updates occur between replicas based upon the synchronization time constraints of the coherency model employed and are generally in the form of deltas only. Deployment: Observed at a few sites, primarily at university campuses. User Agent to Proxy Configuration This section describes the configuration, cooperation and communication between user agents and proxies. Description: Each user must configure her user agent by supplying information pertaining to proxied protocols and local policies.
Security: The potential for doing wrong is high; each user individually sets preferences. Deployment: Widely deployed, used in all current browsers. Most browsers also support additional options. User agents must be configured to request this script upon startup. There is no bootstrap mechanism, manual configuration is necessary. Despite manual configuration, the process of proxy configuration is simplified by centralizing it within a script at a single location.
Security: Common policy per organization possible but still requires initial manual configuration. PAC is better than "manual proxy Cooper, et al. Interoperability of PAC files is not high, since different browsers have slightly different interpretations of the same script, possibly leading to undesired effects. They need to be configured with the location of the cluster information. Security: Security considerations are not covered in the specification works in progress.
Implemented in user agents via PAC scripts. WPAD does not specify which proxies will be used. Deployment: Implemented in some user agents and caching proxy servers. More than two independent implementations. Submitter: Josh Cohen 7. Inter-Proxy Communication 7. Since UDP is an uncorrected network transport protocol, an estimate of network congestion and availability may be calculated by ICP loss.
This rudimentary loss measurement provides, together with round trip times, a load balancing method for caches. HTTP headers may include access control and cache directives. Since proxies ask for the availability of resources, and subsequently retrieve them using HTTP, false cache hits may occur object present in cache, but not accessible to a sibling is one example.
Deployment: Widely deployed. Most current caching proxy implementations support ICP in some form. See also: "Internet Cache Protocol Extension" [ 17 ] work in progress 7. Protocol is subject to attack if authentication is not used. Unlike these protocols, Cache Digests support peering between caching proxies and cache servers without a request-response exchange taking place for each inbound request.
Instead, a summary of the contents in cache the Digest is fetched by other systems that peer with it. Using Cache Digests it is possible to determine with a relatively high degree of accuracy whether a given resource is cached by a particular system. Cache Digests are both an exchange protocol and a data format. Security: If the contents of a Digest are sensitive, they should be protected.
A 'Trojan horse' attack is currently possible in a mesh: System A A can build a fake peer Digest for system B and serve it to B's peers if requested. The impact of this problem is minimized by the 'pull' model of transferring Cache Digests from one system to another.
Hence, they do not dictate a particular level of policy management and can be used to implement various policies on any level user, organization, etc. Deployment: Cache Digests are supported in Squid. It is particularly well adapted to IP-multicast networks because it allows preselected resources to be simultaneously inserted into caches within the targeted multicast group. Different implementations of cache pre-filling already exist, especially in satellite contexts.
However, there is still no standard for this kind of push-caching and vendors propose solutions either based on dedicated equipment or public domain caches extended with a pre- filling module. Security: Relies on the inter-cache protocols being employed. Deployment: Observed in two commercial content distribution service providers. Submitter: Ivan Lovric 7. A user agent which implements CARP v1. Due to the resulting sorting of requests through these proxies, duplication of cache contents is eliminated and global cache hit rates may be improved.
Deployment: Implemented in caching proxy servers. Network Element Communication This section describes the cooperation and communication between proxies and network elements. Examples of such network elements include routers and switches. The protocol allows one or more proxies to register with a single router to receive redirected traffic. It also allows one of the proxies, the designated proxy, to dictate to the router how redirected traffic is distributed across the array.
WCCP V2 additionally runs between multiple routers and the proxies. WCCP V2 provides optional authentication of protocol packets. Caching proxies: WCCP is deployed on a number of vendors' caching proxies.
Submitter: David Forster Document editors. This allows network elements to perform load balancing across a farm of servers, redirection to interception proxies, and cut-through of flows that cannot be served by the farm.
Deployment: Unknown at present; several network element and caching proxy vendors have expressed intent to implement the protocol. Although firewalls don't conform to the narrowly defined network element definition above, they are a integral part of the network infrastructure. When used in conjunction with a firewall, SOCKS provides a authenticated tunnel between the caching proxy and the firewall.
Security: An extensive framework provides for multiple authentication methods. Security Considerations This document provides a taxonomy for web caching and replication. Recommended practice, architecture and protocols are not described in detail. By definition, replication and caching involve the copying of resources.
There are legal implications of making and keeping transient or permanent copies; these are not covered here. Information on security of each protocol referred to by this memo is provided in the preceding sections, and in their accompanying documentation.
Application level proxies are not covered in these security considerations. IP number based authentication is problematic when a proxy is involved in the communications.
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