Usmail [Pedro Juan Soto, Francisco M. Vazquez, Jose A. Pelaez] on Amazon. com. *FREE* Get your Kindle here, or download a FREE Kindle Reading App. In USMAÍL, Pedro Juan Soto gives us a masterful description of life on the small Puerto Rican Island of Vieques during the s, 40s and 50s as seen through. seen in the early works of Puerto Rican writer Pedro Juan Soto. Critics of This content downloaded from on Tue, 09 Jul UTC.
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The invasion taken by the United States government in brought changes to all these mentioned cultural struggle and achievements, but the base for the national identity of the Islanders was already firmly established by the It has endured up to our present moments in a strong symbolic-imaginary form in an Island that belongs-to, but is not part of United States!
The cultural events developed slowly around the 19th Century's beginnings in the Island, and maintained some similarities in response to the mainland Spain cultural expressions.
For these reason the previous cultural practices should be considered under a colonial and subaltern context in Puerto Rico. It takes time to become conscious about it—. It should be kept in mind that even by the middle of the nineteenth century we can still find some conservative Neoclassical structures and attitudes imposed to the colonial culture by the Spanish Crown in Puerto Rico. The natives needed time to transform their socio-cultural reality into a metaphorical and different socio-semiosis that could give them ample and particular relevance in the meaning of their presence in history, having the national independence in mind.
Subaltern reality was there in the social context, and it demanded the awareness of its inhabitants to construct a symbolic and independent identity and place such reality into literary and textual terms.
Slowly, native praxis actions, events gained the cultural fluidity needed for literary metaphorical expressions, and that could give firmness to the national feelings and the necessary force to create an autonomous consciousness and sense of a pertinent time and space that established the claimed identity: Puerto Ricans. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the social conditions that emerged allowed the flourishing of a literature that could be considered Puerto Rican and not an imitation of what was related to Spain, as it had previously occurred.
Important guidance allowing this process of cultural and literary independence were: increased newspaper activity due to the appearance of the local press in , the augmentation of a lettered sector of a criollo culture  with a political mentality every time more autonomous and conscious of itself, and the development of an economy of haciendas  plantations —keeping in mind that slavery oppression was its social base of production.
It is also important to notice the proliferation of small towns on the Island in addition to cultural and social exchanges and dynamics, which were becoming more modern every time. Modernity has to be understood in a subaltern agricultural and rural context and not in the European modalities for the advanced industrial societies and cultures.
However, everything occurred under the processes of a colonial subjection and subaltern society, whose main function was to serve as a Spanish military bastion military vigilance fortification. The Island was refrained of acquiring free economical development given Spain's incapacity to create a capitalist progressive and developmental program even for itself.
But by the first half of the nineteenth century, locally, the production of sugar cane had developed acceptably, and by the second half of the century coffee exportations had expanded considerably, becoming popular in European consumption including some other products. In the 19th century a Puerto Rican bourgeoisie society was growing, with the intervention of this social class so necessary for the claims of independence and autonomous economic development.
This was the social class with the capability of organizing, the technology, the agencies and the monetary traffic to confront the colonial enemy. The play El Grito de Lares by Luis Lloren's Torres displays this event in its imaginary-rhetorical sense much later in the year , but making reference to the revolutionary movement calle El Grito de Lares. This can be wiewed first in a literary form with the employment of metaphors and symbols that reached intensity as a developed colonial society with a desire for modernization and the sense of freedom that had increased.
This occurred mainly with the lettered community and artists whose cultural gaze was directed towards the internal aspects as well as the desire in employing the external modernization advancement for the Puerto Rican native "criollo" culture. Along with the development of the more active and dynamic press, which would bring ideas from around the world, many young students started obtaining scholarships to travel, mainly to Spain, in order to, undertake the university studies, the ones they did not have on the Island.
Manuel A. The existence of a culture of artists and educated young people revealed in these times a significant social consciousness, and also the knowing of particular colonial problems in their context, and the capacity to portray it in literary terms and symbols. This was the first generation of Puerto Rican writers in history, and they were very aware and proud about their fulfillment.
As cultural elites, they were ready to give metaphorical sense to the patriotic sentiment a patriarchal one to what will be known as the "Romantic discourse" of the nineteenth century. He achieves this way of encoding culture mainly in his essays with somewhat complex debates and the short stories with some plots, in times when these views were not even well reached in Spain and the rest of Latin America.
The 19th century's modern Realism had not reached yet its capacity for representing social development with an advanced perspective like happened later. In Europe, on the contrary, Realism was as its best, and the proliferation of the novels in that time shows the best examples Madame Bovary by Gustavo Flaubert, These metaphorical structures grasped the main patterns of literary representations and also of cultural criticism that we can encounter in the historical tradition which will be discussed later.
We can define this as the beginnings of what will be known as Puertorricaness patriotic feelings. Lets have in mind Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina and their independence revolutions and how the national emotional expressions spread across the American Continent. But even though these colonial obstacles, the cultural advancement slowly reached by the socio-economical context of small towns on the Island and the haciendas improved significantly for the well functioning of the society.
This symbolic grasping of the struggle gave substance to the Puerto Rican discourse of resistance and desire of freedom. Other publications of this sort followed at the beginning of the nineteenth century; some were conservative and others more liberal as time passed.
This tells us how the city life voices, with a socio-economic standing, were increasing and becoming every time more complex and open to more modern ideas and social believes and ideologies that were advancing the liberal discourses the Modernism in some other countries. Almost all the 19th century was the period of Romanticism until the 80s, more or less , and it had taken some time to reach its full meaning.
A lot of classists representational prejudices developed against the Puerto Rican peasants.
These peasant workers were in strong demand by the dominant social classes the Hacienda owners and welthy merchants and bankers who had the need of cheap labor. They were the ones who developed nationalist cultural ideas in its formal and imaginary sense in accordance to the European modern way of thinking which gave latter great meaning to the Puerto Rican advancement in history.
However, it should be pointed out how with this particular creative rhythm, literary discourse responded with more or less ironic dissidence to the oppressive colonial power of the Spanish government in the Island. In this colonial context, the liberal press was under continual colonial surveillance. From this point, a somewhat defiant literary reaction would take shape in response to the colonial enforcement, but in an oblique and simulated way. This was beyond the repressive context established by the official institutions with all sorts of punishments and vigilant structures and official agencies.
The canonical Literature that we recognize today is in general the one that became the enemy of the colonial regime. Everything said in the poem should be interpreted considering the dissembling irony involved. After the journalistic development in the first four decades of the nineteenth century, some criollo writers, mainly poets, exposed the experiences and the will in finding styles of how they felt as liberal islanders and every time placed themselves more and more in a Caribbean colonial context.
By , some liberal actions of individuals and voices of desire for freedom, and also liberal independent newspapers, had emerged and continued their difficult but enthusiastic cultural responses along the nineteenth century.
Some literary collaborations, of course, would be anonymous. Their educated followers and admirers were the ones capable of articulating the base and support of the particular world vision of a criollo culture and its customs.
The economical base developed by the hacendados gave meaning to the social structure, which had a powerful folkloric identity of African, Indian and mainly southern Spanish Andalusian and Canarian ancestry.
Under this context, criollo colonial writers looked for a definition of their cultural and political identity in a literary response in an autonomous fashion. Lets not forget there is a social class problem within the development of Puerto Rican culture. The typical Puerto Rican is a mulatto, and the rich and those times the dominating native tended to be white and racist There are some bourgeoisie discourses during this time critics have considered very reactionary because of their classist distance from popular culture.
These were mostly foreigners not interested in anything close to liberal, national or autonomous ideologies or literary expressions. This was unlike other Latin American countries that had been liberated themselves from Spain since the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Literature, in that sense, would become a refuge for a sector of young educated generation of artists and cultural thinkers. Their desire for liberation was refrained and ambiguous in its social concreteness and in the praxis it could reach because they were not backed by a bourgeois class with independent objective and national interests people with money. By the s, young writers had to be very cautious denouncing the colonial power, and they felt identified with the workers of the haciendas as a political icon.
According to our modern literature and cultural critics, this is why writers had to develop very peculiar discourse practices of ironic and indirect —laconic simulations— ways of expressing themselves. Nevertheless, lettered men and artists unknowingly continued creating a national mentality as a copy of European romantic expectations.
Language works beyond individual mentalities and capabilities. These two mentalities, the liberal and the radical, will characterize literary ideological tendencies, the first being the most noticeable. Although, the radicals have been praised by the canon, in general, as the best writers. The Puerto Rican canonical tradition tends to be radical.
On the other hand, if we follow today's post-colonial  ideas, we can argue how the feeling of patriotic and national identity comes out as a conceptual imitation copy of the way the European colonizer is viewed. In that sense, being a liberal was full of imperial contradictions and objective ambiguities as part of their times and context. In general, Puerto Rican idealists and radical politicians and ideologues desired to do away with their role as subordinate, and in reality they desired to occupy the official structure governing them as I mentioned this will be discussed later, and should be best understood of part of our present post-colonial ideas and theories.
The identification of the hacendados and the intellectuals, with the peasants, could be seen as idealist something which is seen different from today's postcolonial mentality. The traditional historian and literary critic of the last half of the twentieth century will not see it this way. He or she will admire a harmonious achievement of national identity by foundational writers in the ideal arcade and imaginary hacienda.
Usually the traditional critic will not see the contradictions the dialectic thought in history.