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Why download extra books when you can get all the homework help you need in one place? Research from the NHC National Hurricane Center explains: "Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm, over and above the predicted astronomical tides. Storm surge should not be confused with storm tide, which is defined as the water level rise due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide. This rise in water level can cause extreme flooding in coastal areas particularly when storm surge coincides with normal high tide, resulting in storm tides reaching up to 20 feet or more in some cases.
Although sometimes triggered by events such as flash flooding or snowmelt , urban flooding is a condition, characterized by its repetitive and systemic impacts on communities, that can happen regardless of whether or not affected communities are located within designated floodplains or near any body of water. In urban areas, flood effects can be exacerbated by existing paved streets and roads, which increase the speed of flowing water.
The flood flow in urbanized areas constitutes a hazard to both the population and infrastructure. Flood flows in urban environments have been studied relatively recently despite many centuries of flood events. Examples include outburst floods and lahars. Tsunamis can cause catastrophic coastal flooding, most commonly resulting from undersea earthquakes. Causes Flood due to Cyclone Hudhud in Visakhapatnam Upslope factors The amount, location, and timing of water reaching a drainage channel from natural precipitation and controlled or uncontrolled reservoir releases determines the flow at downstream locations.
Some precipitation evaporates, some slowly percolates through soil, some may be temporarily sequestered as snow or ice, and some may produce rapid runoff from surfaces including rock, pavement, roofs, and saturated or frozen ground.
The fraction of incident precipitation promptly reaching a drainage channel has been observed from nil for light rain on dry, level ground to as high as percent for warm rain on accumulated snow. Frequency of a precipitation threshold of interest may be determined from the number of measurements exceeding that threshold value within the total time period for which observations are available.
Individual data points are converted to intensity by dividing each measured depth by the period of time between observations. This intensity will be less than the actual peak intensity if the duration of the rainfall event was less than the fixed time interval for which measurements are reported. Convective precipitation events thunderstorms tend to produce shorter duration storm events than orographic precipitation.
Duration, intensity, and frequency of rainfall events are important to flood prediction. Short duration precipitation is more significant to flooding within small drainage basins. Rainfall intensity is the second most important factor for watersheds of less than approximately 30 square miles or 80 square kilometres.
The main channel slope is the second most important factor for larger watersheds. Channel slope and rainfall intensity become the third most important factors for small and large watersheds, respectively. The time of concentration defines the critical duration of peak rainfall for the area of interest. Downslope factors Water flowing downhill ultimately encounters downstream conditions slowing movement.
The final limitation in coastal flooding lands is often the ocean or some coastal flooding bars which form natural lakes. In flooding low lands, elevation changes such as tidal fluctuations are significant determinants of coastal and estuarine flooding. Less predictable events like tsunamis and storm surges may also cause elevation changes in large bodies of water. Elevation of flowing water is controlled by the geometry of the flow channel and, especially, by depth of channel, speed of flow and amount of sediments in it  Flow channel restrictions like bridges and canyons tend to control water elevation above the restriction.
The actual control point for any given reach of the drainage may change with changing water elevation, so a closer point may control for lower water levels until a more distant point controls at higher water levels.
Effective flood channel geometry may be changed by growth of vegetation, accumulation of ice or debris, or construction of bridges, buildings, or levees within the flood channel.
Coincidence Extreme flood events often result from coincidence such as unusually intense, warm rainfall melting heavy snow pack, producing channel obstructions from floating ice, and releasing small impoundments like beaver dams.
Recent field measurements during the —11 Queensland floods showed that any criterion solely based upon the flow velocity, water depth or specific momentum cannot account for the hazards caused by velocity and water depth fluctuations. Culverted fills may be converted to impoundments if the culverts become blocked by debris, and flow may be diverted along streets.
Several studies have looked into the flow patterns and redistribution in streets during storm events and the implication on flood modelling. Floods also frequently damage power transmission and sometimes power generation , which then has knock-on effects caused by the loss of power. This includes loss of drinking water treatment and water supply, which may result in loss of drinking water or severe water contamination. It may also cause the loss of sewage disposal facilities.
Lack of clean water combined with human sewage in the flood waters raises the risk of waterborne diseases , which can include typhoid , giardia , cryptosporidium , cholera and many other diseases depending upon the location of the flood. Damage to roads and transport infrastructure may make it difficult to mobilize aid to those affected or to provide emergency health treatment.
Flood waters typically inundate farm land, making the land unworkable and preventing crops from being planted or harvested, which can lead to shortages of food both for humans and farm animals. Entire harvests for a country can be lost in extreme flood circumstances. Some tree species may not survive prolonged flooding of their root systems. The impact on those affected may cause psychological damage to those affected, in particular where deaths, serious injuries and loss of property occur. Urban flooding can cause chronically wet houses, leading to the growth of indoor mold and resulting in adverse health effects, particularly respiratory symptoms.
In the United States , industry experts estimate that wet basements can lower property values by 10—25 percent and are cited among the top reasons for not downloading a home. Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA , almost 40 percent of small businesses never reopen their doors following a flooding disaster. Flood waters provide much needed water resources in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year and kills pests in the farming land.
Freshwater floods particularly play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity. For some fish species, an inundated floodplain may form a highly suitable location for spawning with few predators and enhanced levels of nutrients or food.
Bird populations may also profit from the boost in food production caused by flooding. The viability of hydropower , a renewable source of energy, is also higher in flood prone regions. Flood safety planning Aftermath of flooding in Colorado, In the United States, the National Weather Service gives out the advice Turn Around, Don't Drown" for floods; that is, it recommends that people get out of the area of a flood, rather than trying to cross it.
At the most basic level, the best defense against floods is to seek higher ground for high-value uses while balancing the foreseeable risks with the benefits of occupying flood hazard zones. Structures, such as bridges, that must unavoidably be in flood hazard areas should be designed to withstand flooding.
Areas most at risk for flooding could be put to valuable uses that could be abandoned temporarily as people retreat to safer areas when a flood is imminent.
Planning for flood safety involves many aspects of analysis and engineering, including: observation of previous and present flood heights and inundated areas, statistical, hydrologic , and hydraulic model analyses, mapping inundated areas and flood heights for future flood scenarios, long-term land use planning and regulation, engineering design and construction of structures to control or withstand flooding, intermediate-term monitoring, forecasting , and emergency-response planning, and short-term monitoring, warning , and response operations.
Each topic presents distinct yet related questions with varying scope and scale in time, space, and the people involved.
Attempts to understand and manage the mechanisms at work in floodplains have been made for at least six millennia. Defenses such as detention basins , levees ,  bunds , reservoirs , and weirs are used to prevent waterways from overflowing their banks. When these defenses fail, emergency measures such as sandbags or portable inflatable tubes are often used to try to stem flooding.